id | description | durability | moistureContent | workability | density | hardness | growthRate |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Douglas Fir | Commonly used in construction for its strength and availability | Moderate | 12-15% | Good | 530 | 660 | 24 |

Southern Yellow Pine | Known for its high density and strength, often used in heavy construction | Moderate | 8-12% | Moderate | 580 | 870 | 20 |

White Oak | Highly durable and resistant to moisture, used for both interior and exterior applications | High | 8-12% | Fair | 770 | 1360 | 12 |

Black Walnut | Valued for its workability and aesthetic appeal, commonly used in fine furniture and finishes | High | 8-12% | Excellent | 610 | 1010 | 24 |

Red Maple | Versatile and widely available, used for furniture and flooring | Moderate | 6-8% | Good | 630 | 950 | 24 |

Eastern White Pine | Lightweight and easy to work with, used in millwork and cabinetry | Low | 12-15% | Excellent | 380 | 380 | 36 |

Western Red Cedar | Naturally resistant to decay, used for outdoor applications like decking and siding | High | 10-12% | Good | 390 | 350 | 24 |

Sugar Maple | Hard and strong, ideal for flooring and butcher blocks | Moderate | 6-8% | Fair | 740 | 1450 | 12 |

Sitka Spruce | Known for its high strength-to-weight ratio, used in aircraft and marine applications | Low | 12-15% | Good | 450 | 510 | 24 |

Ponderosa Pine | Widely used in construction for its workability and availability | Low | 12-15% | Good | 420 | 460 | 18 |

id | description | formula | shortFormula | units |
---|---|---|---|---|

Stress in Beam | Determines the internal forces within a beam | stress = moment*distanceFromNeutralAxis/secondMomentOfArea | Ο = M*c/I | NewtonPerSquareMeter |

Shear Force in Beam | Measures the force that causes parts of a material to slide past each other in opposite directions | shearForce = β«(dMoment/dx) dx | V = β«(dM/dx) dx | Newton |

Bending Moment in Beam | Calculates the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force is applied, causing the element to bend | bendingMoment = β«(shearForce dx) | M = β«(V dx) | NewtonMeter |

Deflection of Beam | Calculates the displacement of a point on the beam under load | deflection = load*length^3 / (48*modulusOfElasticity*secondMomentOfArea) | Ξ΄ = PL^3 / (48EI) | Meter |

Natural Frequency of Bridge | Determines the frequency at which the bridge will naturally vibrate | naturalFrequency = (1/2Ο) * β(stiffness/mass) | f_n = (1/2Ο) * β(k/m) | Hertz |

Buckling Load | Determines the critical load at which a column will buckle | criticalLoad = Ο^2*modulusOfElasticity*secondMomentOfArea / (effectiveLengthFactor*length)^2 | P_cr = Ο^2*EI / (KL)^2 | Newton |

Tensile Strength | Measures the resistance of a material to breaking under tension | tensileStrength = load/area | Ο_t = P/A | NewtonPerSquareMeter |

Load-Bearing Capacity | Determines the maximum weight the bridge can hold | loadBearingCapacity = allowableStress * area | P = f * A | Newton |

id | description | formula | units |
---|---|---|---|

Stress in Beam | Determines the internal forces within a beam | stress = moment*distanceFromNeutralAxis/secondMomentOfArea | NewtonPerSquareMeter |

Shear Force in Beam | Measures the force that causes parts of a material to slide past each other in opposite directions | shearForce = β«(dMoment/dx) dx | Newton |

Bending Moment in Beam | Calculates the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force is applied, causing the element to bend | bendingMoment = β«(shearForce dx) | NewtonMeter |

Deflection of Beam | Calculates the displacement of a point on the beam under load | deflection = load*length^3 / (48*modulusOfElasticity*secondMomentOfArea) | Meter |

Load-Bearing Capacity | Determines the maximum weight the structure can hold | loadBearingCapacity = allowableStress * area | Newton |

Thermal Conductivity | Measures the rate at which heat passes through a material | heatTransfer = thermalConductivity * area * temperatureDifference / thickness | WattPerMeterKelvin |

R-Value | Indicates the resistance of a material to heat flow | rValue = thickness / thermalConductivity | SquareMeterKelvinPerWatt |

Heat Loss | Calculates the total heat loss through a structure | heatLoss = area * uValue * temperatureDifference | Watt |

Concrete Mix Design | Determines the proportions of materials in concrete | concreteMix = (cement : sand : aggregate : water) | Ratio |

Roof Slope | Determines the pitch of the roof | roofSlope = rise / run | Ratio |

Brick Calculation | Estimates the number of bricks needed for a wall | numberOfBricks = wallArea / brickArea | Integer |

id | description | wikipedia | level |
---|---|---|---|

Stock Trading | The buying and selling of shares of publicly traded companies | Surface | |

Options | Financial instruments that give the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price | Surface | |

Bonds | Debt securities issued by entities to raise capital, with a promise to pay back with interest | Surface | |

Forex | The market for trading foreign currencies | Surface | |

Black-Scholes | A mathematical model for pricing options | Basic | |

CAPM | Capital Asset Pricing Model, used to determine the expected return on an asset | Basic | |

Arbitrage | The practice of taking advantage of price differences in different markets | Basic | |

Greeks | Risk measures for options, including Delta, Gamma, Theta, Vega, and Rho | Basic | |

Stochastic Calculus | A branch of mathematics used to model random processes | Intermediate | |

Monte Carlo | A statistical technique using random sampling to approximate solutions | Intermediate | |

Volatility Smile | A pattern in which options with different strike prices have different implied volatilities | Intermediate | |

Ito's Lemma | A key result in stochastic calculus used in the derivation of the Black-Scholes equation | Advanced | |

Brownian Motion | A continuous-time stochastic process used to model random movements | Advanced | |

Martingales | A class of stochastic processes with specific properties useful in financial modeling | Advanced | |

HJM | Heath-Jarrow-Morton framework, a model for the evolution of interest rates | Advanced | |

Malliavin Calculus | A branch of mathematics providing tools for differentiating stochastic processes | Expert | |

Levy Processes | Stochastic processes with stationary independent increments | Expert | |

Rough Volatility | A recent development in financial modeling that captures roughness in volatility paths | Expert |

id | description | speed |
---|---|---|

Air | The most common medium for sound, with speed influenced by temperature, humidity, and pressure | 343 |

Water | A denser medium than air, allowing sound to travel faster | 1482 |

Steel | A dense and elastic solid, sound travels much faster compared to air and water | 5960 |

Glass | A brittle solid with a high speed of sound due to its rigidity | 5200 |

Wood (Oak) | A natural solid with varying speed depending on density and elasticity | 3850 |

Aluminum | A lightweight and strong metal, widely used in engineering | 6320 |

Rubber | A flexible solid with much slower speed of sound compared to metals | 1500 |

Concrete | A composite material used in construction, with speed influenced by its density and composition | 3200 |

Copper | A highly conductive metal, also known for its high speed of sound | 3900 |

Lead | A dense metal with a relatively slower speed of sound due to its softness | 1200 |

id | mediatorParticle | interactionType | unification | discoverer | mathematicalFormulation | experimentalEvidence | quantumTheory | classicalTheory | applications | symmetry | discoveryYear | strength | range | strengthScale | massless |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Gravity | Graviton (theoretical) | All particles with mass | Not unified with other forces yet | Isaac Newton | F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2 | Cavendish experiment | General Relativity (attempts at Quantum Gravity) | Newton's Law of Gravitation | Orbits, planetary motion, tides | Spacetime symmetry | 1687 | 6.6743e-11 | Infinity | 1 | true |

Electromagnetic | Photon | Charged particles | Unified with weak force (Electroweak theory) | James Clerk Maxwell | F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2 | Hertz's experiments on electromagnetic waves | Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) | Maxwell's Equations | Electricity, magnetism, light | Gauge symmetry (U(1)) | 1864 | 1 | Infinity | 2 | true |

Weak | W and Z bosons | All fermions | Unified with electromagnetic force (Electroweak theory) | Enrico Fermi | Described by Fermi's interaction | Observed in beta decay | Quantum Flavour Dynamics (QFD) | Fermi's Theory of Beta Decay | Radioactive decay, nuclear fusion | Gauge symmetry (SU(2)) | 1934 | 0.00001 | 1e-18 | 3 | false |

Strong | Gluon | Quarks and gluons | Part of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) | Murray Gell-Mann | Described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) | Deep inelastic scattering experiments | Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) | Does not have a classical counterpart | Binding protons and neutrons in nuclei | Gauge symmetry (SU(3)) | 1973 | 1 | 1e-15 | 4 | true |

id | creditedTo | country | fieldOfPhysics | equation | yearAppeared | applications | complexity |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Newton's Second Law | Isaac Newton | England | Mechanics | F = ma | 1687 | 100 | 2 |

Einstein's Mass-Energy Equivalence | Albert Einstein | Switzerland | Relativity | E = mc^2 | 1905 | 50 | 5 |

SchrΓΆdinger Equation | Erwin SchrΓΆdinger | Austria | Quantum Mechanics | i\hbar\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\psi = \hat{H}\psi | 1926 | 100 | 7 |

Maxwell's Equations | James Clerk Maxwell | Scotland | Electromagnetism | \begin{align*} \nabla \cdot \mathbf{E} &= \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} \\ \nabla \cdot \mathbf{B} &= 0 \\ \nabla \times \mathbf{E} &= -\frac{\partial \mathbf{B}}{\partial t} \\ \nabla \times \mathbf{B} &= \mu_0 \mathbf{J} + \mu_0 \epsilon_0 \frac{\partial \mathbf{E}}{\partial t} \end{align*} | 1865 | 50 | 6 |

Boltzmann Equation | Ludwig Boltzmann | Austria | Statistical Mechanics | \frac{\partial f}{\partial t} + \mathbf{v} \cdot \nabla f + \mathbf{a} \cdot \frac{\partial f}{\partial \mathbf{v}} = \left( \frac{\partial f}{\partial t} \right)_\text{collision} | 1872 | 30 | 8 |

Planck's Equation | Max Planck | Germany | Quantum Mechanics | E = h\nu | 1900 | 40 | 6 |

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle | Werner Heisenberg | Germany | Quantum Mechanics | \Delta x \Delta p \geq \frac{\hbar}{2} | 1927 | 20 | 5 |

Hubble's Law | Edwin Hubble | USA | Cosmology | v = H_0 d | 1929 | 25 | 4 |

Fourier Transform | Joseph Fourier | France | Mathematical Physics | \hat{f}(\xi) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) e^{-2\pi i x \xi} \, dx | 1822 | 70 | 6 |

Lorentz Transformation | Hendrik Lorentz | Netherlands | Relativity | \begin{align*} t' &= \gamma \left( t - \frac{vx}{c^2} \right) \\ x' &= \gamma (x - vt) \end{align*} | 1904 | 20 | 6 |

Dirac Equation | Paul Dirac | UK | Quantum Mechanics | \left( i\gamma^\mu \partial_\mu - m \right) \psi = 0 | 1928 | 30 | 9 |

Navier-Stokes Equation | Claude-Louis Navier, George Gabriel Stokes | France, UK | Fluid Mechanics | \rho \left( \frac{\partial \mathbf{u}}{\partial t} + (\mathbf{u} \cdot \nabla) \mathbf{u} \right) = -\nabla p + \mu \nabla^2 \mathbf{u} + \mathbf{f} | 1822 | 50 | 9 |

Ohm's Law | Georg Ohm | Germany | Electromagnetism | V = IR | 1827 | 100 | 2 |

Hooke's Law | Robert Hooke | England | Mechanics | F = -kx | 1678 | 60 | 2 |

Kepler's Third Law | Johannes Kepler | Germany | Astronomy | T^2 \propto r^3 | 1619 | 30 | 3 |

Bernoulli's Principle | Daniel Bernoulli | Switzerland | Fluid Mechanics | p + \frac{1}{2}\rho v^2 + \rho gh = \text{constant} | 1738 | 50 | 4 |

Faraday's Law of Induction | Michael Faraday | England | Electromagnetism | \mathcal{E} = -\frac{d\Phi_B}{dt} | 1831 | 40 | 5 |

Stefan-Boltzmann Law | Josef Stefan, Ludwig Boltzmann | Austria | Thermodynamics | j^* = \sigma T^4 | 1879 | 30 | 5 |

Lenz's Law | Heinrich Lenz | Russia | Electromagnetism | \mathcal{E} = -\frac{d\Phi_B}{dt} | 1834 | 30 | 4 |

Coulomb's Law | Charles-Augustin de Coulomb | France | Electrostatics | F = k_e \frac{q_1 q_2}{r^2} | 1785 | 50 | 3 |

Fermi-Dirac Statistics | Enrico Fermi, Paul Dirac | Italy, UK | Quantum Mechanics | f(E) = \frac{1}{e^{(E - \mu)/kT} + 1} | 1926 | 40 | 7 |

Bose-Einstein Statistics | Satyendra Nath Bose, Albert Einstein | India, Germany | Quantum Mechanics | f(E) = \frac{1}{e^{(E - \mu)/kT} - 1} | 1924 | 30 | 7 |

Wien's Displacement Law | Wilhelm Wien | Germany | Thermodynamics | \lambda_\text{peak} T = b | 1893 | 25 | 5 |

Poisson's Equation | SimΓ©on Denis Poisson | France | Mathematical Physics | \nabla^2 \phi = -\frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} | 1813 | 30 | 6 |

AmpΓ¨re's Law | AndrΓ©-Marie AmpΓ¨re | France | Electromagnetism | \nabla \times \mathbf{B} = \mu_0 \mathbf{J} | 1826 | 40 | 4 |

Biot-Savart Law | Jean-Baptiste Biot, FΓ©lix Savart | France | Electromagnetism | d\mathbf{B} = \frac{\mu_0}{4\pi} \frac{I d\mathbf{l} \times \mathbf{\hat{r}}}{r^2} | 1820 | 30 | 5 |

Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws | Gustav Kirchhoff | Germany | Electrical Circuits | \begin{align*} \sum I = 0 \\ \sum V = 0 \end{align*} | 1845 | 50 | 3 |

Gibbs Free Energy | Josiah Willard Gibbs | USA | Thermodynamics | G = H - TS | 1873 | 30 | 6 |

Avogadro's Law | Amedeo Avogadro | Italy | Chemistry | V \propto n | 1811 | 30 | 3 |

de Broglie Hypothesis | Louis de Broglie | France | Quantum Mechanics | \lambda = \frac{h}{p} | 1924 | 25 | 6 |

id | creditedTo | country | application | impact | yearAppeared | importanceRank |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Newton's Second Law (F = ma) | Isaac Newton | England | Classical mechanics | Fundamental equation of motion, used in all areas of physics | 1687 | 1 |

Maxwell's Equations | James Clerk Maxwell | Scotland | Electromagnetism | Unified electricity, magnetism, and light; basis for modern electrodynamics | 1865 | 2 |

SchrΓΆdinger Equation | Erwin SchrΓΆdinger | Austria | Quantum mechanics | Describes the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic level | 1926 | 3 |

Einstein's Energy-Mass Equivalence (E = mc^2) | Albert Einstein | Germany/Switzerland | Special relativity, nuclear physics | Relates energy to mass, key to understanding nuclear reactions and energy | 1905 | 4 |

Hubble's Law | Edwin Hubble | United States | Cosmology | Established the expansion of the universe, cornerstone of Big Bang theory | 1929 | 5 |

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle | Werner Heisenberg | Germany | Quantum mechanics | Fundamental limit on precision of measurements at quantum scale | 1927 | 6 |

Boltzmann's Entropy Equation | Ludwig Boltzmann | Austria | Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics | Relates entropy to number of microscopic states, foundation of statistical physics | 1877 | 7 |

Planck's Energy Quantum | Max Planck | Germany | Quantum mechanics | Introduced the concept of energy quanta, launching quantum theory | 1900 | 8 |

Dirac Equation | Paul Dirac | England | Quantum mechanics, special relativity | Relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation, predicted antimatter | 1928 | 9 |

Euler's Equation (e^(i*pi) + 1 = 0) | Leonhard Euler | Switzerland | Complex analysis | Relates fundamental constants e, i, pi; considered most beautiful equation | 1748 | 10 |

Principle of Least Action | Pierre Louis Maupertuis | France | Classical mechanics | Alternative formulation of mechanics using variational principle | 1744 | 11 |

Noether's Theorem | Emmy Noether | Germany | Theoretical physics | Connects symmetries to conservation laws, fundamental to modern physics | 1915 | 12 |

Navier-Stokes Equations | Claude-Louis Navier, George Stokes | France, Ireland | Fluid dynamics | Describes motion of viscous fluids, used in aerodynamics, weather, & more | 1822 | 13 |

Riemann Hypothesis | Bernhard Riemann | Germany | Number theory | Conjectured rule for distribution of prime numbers, unproven but very important | 1859 | 14 |

Gauss's Law | Carl Friedrich Gauss | Germany | Electrostatics | Relates electric field to charge distribution, part of Maxwell's equations | 1835 | 15 |

AmpΓ¨re's Circuital Law | AndrΓ©-Marie AmpΓ¨re | France | Magnetostatics | Relates magnetic field to electric current, part of Maxwell's equations | 1826 | 16 |

Faraday's Law of Induction | Michael Faraday | England | Electromagnetism | Describes how changing magnetic field induces electric field | 1831 | 17 |

Boyle's Law | Robert Boyle | Ireland | Thermodynamics | Relates pressure and volume of gas at constant temperature | 1662 | 18 |

Fourier's Heat Equation | Joseph Fourier | France | Heat transfer | Describes conduction of heat in solids, used in many applications | 1822 | 19 |

Coulomb's Law | Charles-Augustin de Coulomb | France | Electrostatics | Describes force between electric charges, foundation of electrostatics | 1785 | 20 |

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion | Johannes Kepler | Germany | Astronomy | Describes motion of planets around the Sun, basis for Newton's gravity | 1609 | 21 |

Lorentz Force Law | Hendrik Lorentz | Netherlands | Electromagnetism | Describes force on charge moving in electromagnetic field | 1895 | 22 |

Biot-Savart Law | Jean-Baptiste Biot, FΓ©lix Savart | France | Magnetostatics | Describes magnetic field generated by electric current | 1820 | 23 |

Fermat's Principle of Least Time | Pierre de Fermat | France | Optics | Light travels path that takes least time, explains refraction and reflection | 1662 | 24 |

Fresnel Equations | Augustin-Jean Fresnel | France | Optics | Describe reflection and transmission of light at interface between media | 1823 | 25 |

Snell's Law | Willebrord Snellius | Netherlands | Optics | Relates angles of incidence and refraction for light crossing boundary | 1621 | 26 |

Hooke's Law | Robert Hooke | England | Mechanics, materials science | Linearly relates force and extension in spring, describes elastic materials | 1660 | 27 |

Bragg's Law | William Henry Bragg, William Lawrence Bragg | England | Crystallography | Describes condition for diffraction by crystal lattice planes | 1913 | 28 |

Carnot's Theorem | Sadi Carnot | France | Thermodynamics | Limits the maximum efficiency of any heat engine | 1824 | 29 |

Lagrange's Equations | Joseph-Louis Lagrange | Italy/France | Classical mechanics | Reformulates Newtonian mechanics, basis for Hamiltonian mechanics | 1788 | 30 |

id | habitat | diet | averageHibernationDuration | bodyTemperatureDrop | heartRateReduction | breathingRateReduction | energySaved |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Brown Bear | Forests | Omnivorous | 180 | 10 | 20 | 5 | 50 |

Arctic Ground Squirrel | Tundra | Herbivorous | 240 | 60 | 100 | 25 | 60 |

Common Poorwill | Deserts | Insectivorous | 120 | 12 | 20 | 5 | 30 |

European Hedgehog | Woodlands | Insectivorous | 150 | 40 | 50 | 10 | 70 |

Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur | Tropical Forests | Frugivorous | 180 | 15 | 15 | 5 | 40 |

Box Turtle | Forests and Grasslands | Omnivorous | 150 | 20 | 10 | 2 | 50 |

Big Brown Bat | Caves and Forests | Insectivorous | 180 | 30 | 100 | 20 | 80 |

Alpine Marmot | Mountains | Herbivorous | 180 | 50 | 90 | 15 | 70 |

Raccoon | Forests and Urban Areas | Omnivorous | 120 | 10 | 30 | 5 | 40 |

Eastern Chipmunk | Forests | Omnivorous | 90 | 10 | 20 | 5 | 30 |

Wood Frog | Wetlands | Insectivorous | 180 | 30 | 0 | 0 | 60 |

Snapping Turtle | Freshwater | Omnivorous | 180 | 20 | 10 | 2 | 50 |

Blanding's Turtle | Freshwater | Omnivorous | 150 | 20 | 10 | 2 | 50 |

Garter Snake | Grasslands | Carnivorous | 180 | 10 | 10 | 5 | 40 |

Bumblebee | Gardens and Meadows | Nectar and Pollen | 210 | 20 | 10 | 10 | 60 |

Groundhog | Fields and Forests | Herbivorous | 150 | 40 | 50 | 10 | 70 |

Bear | Forests and Mountains | Omnivorous | 120 | 12 | 10 | 5 | 50 |

Jerboa | Deserts | Herbivorous | 180 | 15 | 20 | 5 | 40 |

Little Brown Bat | Caves and Forests | Insectivorous | 180 | 30 | 100 | 20 | 80 |

Deer Mouse | Forests and Grasslands | Omnivorous | 180 | 20 | 10 | 5 | 50 |

Hormone_Name | Chemical_Formula | Min_Level_mmol_L | Max_Level_mmol_L | Peptide_Hormone | Steroid_Hormone | Amine_Hormone | Half_Life_Minutes | Pulsatile_Release | Endocrine_Gland_ID |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Insulin | Cββ βHβββNββ OββSβ | 0.0000365 | 0.00018 | true | false | false | 6 | false | 4 |

Glucagon | Cββ βHβββ NββOββS | 0.00000125 | 0.000009 | true | false | false | 5 | false | 4 |

Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) | Cββ HββIβNOβ (T4), Cββ HββIβNOβ (T3) | 0.0012 (T4), 0.0000015 (T3) | 0.0023 (T4), 0.0000025 (T3) | false | false | true | 10080 (T4), 2880 (T3) | false | 2 |

Cortisol | CββHββOβ | 0.138 | 0.69 | false | true | false | 60 | true | 3 |

Adrenaline (epinephrine) | CβHββNOβ | 0.00000546 | 0.0000218 | false | false | true | 2 | false | 3 |

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) | CβHββNOβ | 0.00000709 | 0.0000568 | false | false | true | 2 | false | 3 |

Growth hormone | CβββHββ ββNβββOβββSβ | 3e-7 | 0.00004 | true | false | false | 20 | true | 1 |

Testosterone | CββHββOβ | 0.00934 | 0.0347 | false | true | false | 60 | false | 5 |

Estrogen | CββHββOβ (Estradiol) | 1e-7 | 4e-7 | false | true | false | 1440 | false | 5 |

Progesterone | CββHββOβ | 0.000032 | 0.00159 | false | true | false | 1440 | false | 5 |

Prolactin | CβββHβββNβ βOβ βS | 8.7e-7 | 0.0000043 | true | false | false | 30 | true | 1 |

Oxytocin | CββHββNββOββSβ | 7e-8 | 7e-8 | true | false | false | 3 | true | 1 |

Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) | CββHββ Nββ OββSβ | 2.8e-7 | 2.8e-7 | true | false | false | 10 | true | 1 |

Parathyroid hormone | CβββHβββNβββOβββSβ | 0.0000043 | 0.000009 | true | false | false | 4 | true | 6 |

Calcitonin | Cβββ HβββNββOββSβ | 3e-7 | 0.0000065 | true | false | false | 10 | false | 2 |

Leptin | CβββHββββNβββOβββSβ | 0.0000027 | 0.000027 | true | false | false | 90 | false | 0 |

Ghrelin | CβββHβββ Nββ Oββ | 9.6e-7 | 0.0000079 | true | false | false | 30 | true | 0 |

Melatonin | CββHββNβOβ | 1e-7 | 5e-7 | false | false | true | 40 | true | 7 |

Serotonin | CββHββNβO | 6e-7 | 0.000002 | false | false | true | 10 | false | 0 |

Dopamine | CβHββNOβ | 1e-7 | 2e-7 | false | false | true | 2 | false | 0 |

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) | CβββHβββNβββOβββSββ | 0.0025 | 0.021 | true | false | false | 180 | true | 1 |

Luteinizing hormone (LH) | Cβ ββHβββNβββOβββSββ | 0.008 | 0.079 | true | false | false | 60 | true | 1 |

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) | CβββHβββNβ βOβ βS | 0.000002 | 0.000022 | true | false | false | 10 | true | 1 |

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) | CβββHβββNβ βOββSββ | 0.00045 | 0.00462 | true | false | false | 60 | true | 1 |

Erythropoietin (EPO) | Cβββ HββββNβββOβββSβ | 0.000002 | 0.00003 | true | false | false | 360 | false | 9 |

Renin | CββββHββββNββ βOβββSβ | 6e-7 | 0.000003 | true | false | false | 30 | true | 10 |

Aldosterone | CββHββOβ | 8.3e-7 | 0.0000097 | false | true | false | 30 | true | 3 |

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) | CββHββ Nββ OββSβ | 2.8e-7 | 2.8e-7 | true | false | false | 10 | true | 1 |

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) | CβββHβββNβ βOββ | 3e-7 | 6.5e-7 | true | false | false | 2 | true | 11 |

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) | CβββHβββNββOββ Sβ | 6e-8 | 0.000017 | true | false | false | 10 | false | 0 |

Calcitriol (active form of vitamin D) | CββHββOβ | 3.14e-8 | 1.555e-7 | false | true | false | 900 | false | 12 |

Cholecystokinin (CCK) | CββHβββ NββOββSβ | 3e-8 | 2e-7 | true | false | false | 5 | true | 0 |

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) | CβββHβββNββOββSβ | 4e-8 | 2e-7 | true | false | false | 4 | true | 8 |

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) | CββHββOβ | 0.00324 | 0.0139 | false | true | false | 4320 | false | 3 |

Endorphins | CβββHβββNβ βOββS | 6e-8 | 6e-7 | true | false | false | 7 | false | 0 |

Gastrin | Cβ βHββNββOββSβ | 2e-8 | 4e-7 | true | false | false | 6 | true | 13 |

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) | Cββ βHβββNββOβ β | 7e-8 | 5.5e-7 | true | false | false | 2 | true | 14 |

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) | CβββHβββNβ βOβ β | 2e-8 | 9e-8 | true | false | false | 6 | true | 8 |

Histamine | Cβ HβNβ | 5e-7 | 0.000002 | false | false | true | 1 | false | 0 |

Incretin | CβββHβββ Nβ βOββ | 4e-8 | 5.5e-7 | true | false | false | 3 | true | 14 |

Inhibin | Cβ β βHβββNβββOβββSβ | 0.00000175 | 0.0000026 | true | false | false | 100 | false | 5 |

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) | CββHβββNββOββ | 4e-9 | 1e-7 | true | false | false | 20 | false | 1 |

Motilin | CβββHβββNββOββSβ | 7e-8 | 2.7e-7 | true | false | false | 5 | true | 13 |

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) | CβββHβββ Nβ β Oβ β | 2e-7 | 8e-7 | true | false | false | 20 | false | 0 |

Orexin | Cβ βHββNββOββ | 2e-9 | 1e-7 | true | false | false | 20 | true | 0 |

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) | CβββHβββNββOββ | 2e-7 | 0.000005 | true | false | false | 7 | true | 4 |

Peptide YY (PYY) | CβββHβββ Nβ βOβ β | 3e-8 | 7e-7 | true | false | false | 8 | true | 14 |

Secretin | CβββHβββ NββOββ | 2e-8 | 5.5e-7 | true | false | false | 5 | true | 15 |

Somatostatin | CββHβββNββOββSβ | 5e-8 | 2.5e-7 | true | false | false | 1 | false | 4 |

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) | CββHββNβOβ | 1.65e-7 | 8.7e-7 | true | false | false | 5 | true | 8 |

Natural Disaster | Description | Measurement Scale | Min | Max |
---|---|---|---|---|

Hurricane | A tropical cyclone with sustained winds of 74 mph (119 km/h) or higher | Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale | 1 | 5 |

Earthquake | Sudden shaking of the Earth's surface caused by the release of energy | Moment Magnitude Scale (MMS) | 0 | 10 |

Tsunami | A series of ocean waves caused by underwater disturbances, such as earthquakes | Tsunami Intensity Scale | 1 | 6 |

Tornado | A violently rotating column of air that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground | Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale | 0 | 5 |

Volcanic Eruption | The release of lava, ash, and gases from a volcano | Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) | 0 | 8 |

Wildfire | An uncontrolled fire in a natural area, often caused by lightning or human activity | Burned Area | 0 | Varies |

Flood | An overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry | Flood Severity | 0 | Varies |

Drought | A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a water shortage | Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) | -10 | 10 |

Landslide | The movement of rock, earth, or debris down a slope due to gravity | Landslide Velocity Scale | 1 | 7 |

Avalanche | A rapid flow of snow down a slope, often triggered by weather or human activity | Avalanche Danger Scale | 1 | 5 |

Blizzard | A severe snowstorm with high winds and low visibility | Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) | 1 | 5 |

Hailstorm | A storm that produces hailstones, which are balls of ice that fall from the sky | TORRO Hailstorm Intensity Scale | H0 | H10 |

Heat Wave | A prolonged period of excessively hot weather | Heat Index (HI) | 80Β°F | Varies |

Cold Wave | A prolonged period of excessively cold weather | Wind Chill Index | Varies | Varies |

Dust Storm | A strong wind that carries large amounts of dust and debris | Dust Storm Intensity | 0 | Varies |

Sinkhole | A depression or hole in the ground caused by the collapse of the surface layer | Sinkhole Size | 0 | Varies |

Limnic Eruption | A rare type of natural disaster where dissolved carbon dioxide suddenly erupts from deep lake water | No Scale | - | - |

Meteor Impact | The collision of a meteoroid, asteroid, or comet with the Earth's surface | Torino Impact Hazard Scale | 0 | 10 |

Solar Flare | A sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness on the Sun's surface | Solar Flare Classification System (X-class) | A1 | X28+ |

Geomagnetic Storm | A temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by solar wind shock waves | NOAA Space Weather Scale for Geomagnetic Storms | G1 | G5 |

Name | Transverse | Longitudinal | Medium Required | Propagation Speed (m/s) | Min Frequency (Hz) | Max Frequency (Hz) | Common Sources | Primary Uses or Effects | Key Characteristics | Examples | Impact on Environment/Humans |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Electromagnetic Waves | True | False | False | 299792458 | Varies | Varies | Sun, radio transmitters | Communication, medical imaging, cooking | Can travel in vacuum and through transparent media | Radio broadcasts, X-rays | Varies; UV can cause skin cancer |

Sound Waves | False | True | True | 343 | 20 | 20000 | Vibrating objects | Communication, music, sonar | Travels through elastic media | Talking, concerts, ultrasound imaging | Noise pollution can affect health and well-being |

Seismic Waves | True | True | True | 3500 | Varies | Varies | Earthquakes, explosions | Earthquake engineering, oil exploration | Can cause significant ground movement | Earthquakes, nuclear testing | Can cause extensive property damage and loss of life |

Gravitational Waves | True | False | False | 299792458 | 0.0001 | Varies | Colliding black holes, neutron stars | Astronomy, testing theories of gravity | Ripples in spacetime | Facilitated by LIGO and other observatories | None known; mostly relevant for astrophysics |

Thermal Waves | False | True | True | Varies | Varies | Varies | Heating elements, sun | Heating, climate control | Move through conduction, convection, or radiation | Heat in homes, atmospheric heat waves | Heat waves can cause health issues and environmental stress |

Chemical Waves | False | True | True | Varies | Varies | Varies | Chemical reactions | Chemical processing, biological signaling | Propagation of reaction and diffusion | Calcium waves in cells, Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction | Can be critical in biological processes |

Combustion Waves | False | True | True | Varies | Varies | Varies | Fire, explosions | Fire safety, controlled burns | Propagation of fire through combustible materials | Wildfires, controlled burns | Can cause massive destruction and pollution |

id | speed | yearInvented | passengers | range |
---|---|---|---|---|

High-speed rail | 268 | 1964 | 1000 | 1500 |

Maglev train | 375 | 1984 | 1000 | 500 |

Hyperloop (proposed) | 760 | 2013 | 28 | 900 |

Concorde (retired) | 1354 | 1969 | 100 | 4500 |

Boeing 747 | 614 | 1969 | 660 | 9800 |

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird (retired) | 2193 | 1964 | 2 | 3200 |

Space Shuttle (retired) | 17500 | 1981 | 7 | 500 |

SpaceX Crew Dragon | 17500 | 2020 | 7 | 500 |

Virgin Galactic SpaceShipTwo | 2500 | 2018 | 6 | 50 |

Blue Origin New Shepard | 2500 | 2015 | 6 | 60 |

Bugatti Chiron Super Sport 300+ | 304 | 2019 | 2 | 300 |

Hennessey Venom GT | 270 | 2010 | 2 | 400 |

Koenigsegg Agera RS | 278 | 2015 | 2 | 600 |

ThrustSSC (land speed record car) | 763 | 1997 | 1 | 50 |

North American X-15 (retired) | 4520 | 1959 | 1 | 200 |

id | classDescription | commonAlgorithms |
---|---|---|

O(1) | Execution time remains constant regardless of input size. | Finding array element by index, adding a node to the head of a linked list |

O(log n) | Execution time grows logarithmically in proportion to the input size. | Binary search |

O(n) | Execution time grows linearly with the input size. | Linear search, traversing an array |

O(n log n) | Execution time grows linearly and logarithmically with the input size. | Quick sort, merge sort |

O(n^2) | Execution time grows quadratically with the input size. | Bubble sort, selection sort, insertion sort |

O(n^3) | Execution time grows cubically with the input size. | Naive matrix multiplication |

O(2^n) | Execution time grows exponentially based on the input size. | Brute force solutions for the traveling salesman problem, recursive calculation of Fibonacci numbers |

O(n!) | Execution time grows factorially based on the input size. | Solving the traveling salesman problem via brute force, generating all permutations of a set |

id | wikipedia | type | applications | keyAdvancements | inventorDeveloper | invented | resolution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Optical Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_microscope | Optical | General biological and medical microscopy | Improved lens quality and microscope design for better image clarity and detail. | Zacharias Janssen (attributed) | 1590 | 200 |

Electron Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_microscope | Electron | Cellular biology, materials science, virology | Enhanced magnification and resolution, allowing visualization of structures at the atomic level. | Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll | 1931 | 0.2 |

Scanning Tunneling Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanning_tunneling_microscope | Scanning Probe | Surface science, nanotechnology | Ability to image surfaces at the atomic level. | Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer | 1981 | 0.1 |

Confocal Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confocal_microscopy | Optical | 3D imaging of biological samples | Provides optical sectioning capability to observe multiple layers within specimens. | Marvin Minsky | 1957 | 200 |

Atomic Force Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_force_microscopy | Scanning Probe | Nanotechnology, surface engineering | Can image non-conductive materials, providing a three-dimensional surface profile. | Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate, Christoph Gerber | 1986 | 0.1 |

Fluorescence Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence_microscope | Optical | Biological sciences, medical diagnostics | Uses fluorescence and phosphorescence to study properties of organic or inorganic substances. | Oskar HeimstΓ€dt | 1911 | 200 |

Phase Contrast Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_contrast_microscopy | Optical | Live cell imaging without staining | Enhances contrast in transparent and colorless samples. | Frits Zernike | 1934 | 200 |

Transmission Electron Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_electron_microscopy | Electron | Material science, cancer research, virology | Capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes, down to the level of atomic structures. | Ernst Ruska | 1933 | 0.05 |

Scanning Electron Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanning_electron_microscope | Electron | Materials research, forensic examinations, biological research | Produces high-resolution images of a sample surface, revealing detailed topography. | Manfred von Ardenne | 1942 | 1 |

Digital Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_microscope | Optical | Education, industrial inspection, clinical research | Integration with digital cameras and computers for enhanced imaging and analysis. | Various contributors | 1980 | 200 |

Stereo Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereo_microscope | Optical | Manufacturing, botany, entomology | Provides a three-dimensional viewing experience by using two separate optical paths. | Cherubin d'Orleans | 1671 | 10000 |

X-ray Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_microscopy | X-ray | Material sciences, paleontology | Uses X-rays to penetrate samples and create images of the internal structure. | Raymond Castaing | 1946 | 50 |

Cryo-Electron Microscopy | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryo-electron_microscopy | Electron | Structural biology, virology | Allows imaging of samples at cryogenic temperatures, preserving native state. | Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, Richard Henderson | 1975 | 0.1 |

id | spectralType | distance | apparentMagnitude | absoluteMagnitude | radialVelocity | mass |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Proxima Centauri | M5.5Ve | 4.24 | 11.13 | 15.6 | -22.204 | 0.1221 |

Alpha Centauri A | G2V | 4.37 | -0.01 | 4.38 | -21.4 | 1.1 |

Alpha Centauri B | K1V | 4.37 | 1.33 | 5.71 | -18 | 0.907 |

Barnard's Star | M4.0Ve | 5.96 | 9.54 | 13.22 | -110.51 | 0.144 |

Sirius A | A1V | 8.66 | -1.46 | 1.42 | -5.5 | 2.02 |

Sirius B | DA2 | 8.66 | 8.44 | 11.34 | -5.5 | 1.018 |

Luyten 726-8 A | M5.5Ve | 8.73 | 12.52 | 15.46 | -32.5 | 0.102 |

Luyten 726-8 B | M6Ve | 8.73 | 13.05 | 16.24 | -25 | 0.1 |

Ross 154 | M3.5Ve | 9.69 | 10.44 | 13.92 | -9.6 | 0.17 |

Ross 248 | M5.5Ve | 10.32 | 12.29 | 15.8 | -81 | 0.136 |

Epsilon Eridani | K2V | 10.48 | 3.73 | 6.18 | 15.5 | 0.82 |

Lacaille 9352 | M0.5V | 10.73 | 7.34 | 10.58 | -37 | 0.45 |

Ross 128 | M4V | 11 | 11.15 | 14.79 | -30 | 0.168 |

EZ Aquarii A | M5Ve | 11.08 | 12.87 | 16.47 | -60 | 0.13 |

EZ Aquarii B | M5Ve | 11.08 | 12.87 | 16.47 | -60 | 0.13 |

EZ Aquarii C | M5Ve | 11.08 | 12.87 | 16.47 | -60 | 0.13 |

61 Cygni A | K5V | 11.4 | 5.2 | 7.49 | -64.3 | 0.67 |

id | organism | diameter | low | median | high |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mitochondria | human | 1000 | 200 | 500 | 2000 |

Chloroplast | plant | 6000 | 20 | 40 | 100 |

Nucleus | human | 6000 | 1 | 1 | 2 |

Golgi Apparatus | human | 1200 | 10 | 20 | 50 |

Endoplasmic Reticulum | human | 120 | 1 | 1 | 5 |

Ribosome | human | 25 | 10000 | 50000 | 100000 |

Lysosome | human | 1200 | 50 | 200 | 500 |

Peroxisome | human | 500 | 100 | 300 | 500 |

Vacuole | plant | 30000 | 1 | 1 | 3 |

Centrosome | human | 700 | 1 | 2 | 2 |

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum | human | 120 | 1 | 1 | 5 |

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum | human | 150 | 1 | 1 | 5 |

Nucleolus | human | 2500 | 1 | 1 | 4 |

Plasmodesmata | plant | 50 | 1000 | 5000 | 10000 |

Mitosome | protozoa | 500 | 5 | 10 | 20 |

Hydrogenosome | protozoa | 500 | 5 | 10 | 20 |

Glyoxysome | plant | 300 | 100 | 200 | 300 |

Chromoplast | plant | 2000 | 2 | 5 | 10 |

Amyloplast | plant | 2000 | 5 | 10 | 30 |

Elaioplast | plant | 1000 | 10 | 20 | 50 |

Periplastidial compartment (PPC) | plant | 100 | 5 | 15 | 30 |

Flagellum | protozoa | 200 | 1 | 1 | 10 |

Cilium | human | 250 | 10 | 50 | 100 |